Posted by LudoArt Blog on June 18, 2020


C++11 let you use nullptr instead of 0 or NULL to specify that a pointer refers to no value.

For example:

void f(int);
void f(void*);
f(0);  /*calls f(int)*/
f(NULL);  /*calls f(int) if NULL is 0, ambiguous otherwise*/
f(nullptr);  /*calls f(void*)*/

nullptr_t defined in <cstddef>:

typedef decltype(nullptr) nullptr_t;


decltype 将变量的类型声明为表达式指定的类型。

decltype(x) y; 的含义是:让y的类型与x相同,其中x是一个表达式。


double x;
int n;
decltype(x*n) q;  /*q same type as x*n (double)*/
decltype(&x) pd;  /*pd same type as &x (double)*/


template<typename T, typename U>
void ef(T t, U u)
    decltype(T*U) tu;  /*tu将为表达式T*U的类型*/

decltype 的工作原理比 auto 复杂,根据使用的表达式,指定的类型可以为引用和 const

int j = 3;
int &k = j;
const int &n = j;
decltype(n) i1;  /*i1 type const int &*/
decltype(j) i2;  /*i2 type int*/
decltype((j)) i3;  /*i3 type int&*/
decltype(k + 1) i4;  /*i4 type int*/


You can declare a variable or an object without specifying its specific type by using auto.

For example:

auto i = 42;  /*i has type int*/
double f();
auto d = f();  /*d has type double*/

Using auto is especially useful where the type is a pretty long and/or complicated expression.

For example:

vector<string> v;
auto pos = v.begin();  /*pos has type vector<string>::iterator*/
auto I = [](int x) -> bool {  /*I has type of a lambda*/
    ...                       /*taking an int and returning a bool*/